Esperanto | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

ملحق
ap. (apendico)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
تقريبا
proks. (proksimume)
Used when quantity is unknown
الببليوغرافيا
bibliog. (bibliografio)
List of sources used
حوالي
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
Used when estimating a quantity
فصل
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
A defined section of the work
عمود
kol. (kolono)
The vertical part of a table
أطروحة
dis. (disertacio)
A complete work on a specific subject
التحرير
ed. (eldonita de)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
مثلا
ekz. (ekzemplo)
Used when giving an example
خاصّةً
prec. (precipe)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
إلخ. (إلى آخره)
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
شكل
fig. (figuro)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
يعني
t.e. (tio estas)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
بما في ذلك
ink. (inkluzive)
Used when adding something to a list
تنبيه
N.B. (notu bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
ًص. (صفحة)
p. (paĝo)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
صفحات
pj. (paĝoj)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
مقدمة
pref. (prefaco)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
الناشر
eld. (eldonita de)
Used to name the person who has published the work
راجعه
rev. (reviziita de)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
إعادة الطباعة
rep. (represo)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
ترجمة
trad. (tradukita de)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
مجلد
vol. (volumo)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work