German | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

ap. (apendico)
Ah. (Anhang)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
proks. (proksimume)
ugf. (ungefähr)
Used when quantity is unknown
bibliog. (bibliografio)
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
List of sources used
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
ca. (circa)
Used when estimating a quantity
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
K. (Kapitel)
A defined section of the work
kol. (kolono)
Spalte
The vertical part of a table
dis. (disertacio)
Diss. (Dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
ed. (eldonita de)
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
ekz. (ekzemplo)
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
Used when giving an example
prec. (precipe)
bes. (besonders)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
usw. (und so weiter)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
fig. (figuro)
Abb. (Abbildung)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
t.e. (tio estas)
d.h. (das heißt)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
ink. (inkluzive)
inkl. (inklusive)
Used when adding something to a list
N.B. (notu bene)
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
p. (paĝo)
S. (Seite)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
pj. (paĝoj)
S. (Seiten)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
pref. (prefaco)
Vorw. (Vorwort)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
eld. (eldonita de)
hg. (herausgegeben von)
Used to name the person who has published the work
rev. (reviziita de)
geä. (geändert)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
rep. (represo)
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
trad. (tradukita de)
übersetzt von
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volumo)
Jg. (Jahrgang)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work