Vietnamese | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

ap. (apendico)
Phụ lục
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
proks. (proksimume)
Xấp xỉ
Used when quantity is unknown
bibliog. (bibliografio)
Thư mục
List of sources used
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
vào khoảng
Used when estimating a quantity
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
A defined section of the work
kol. (kolono)
The vertical part of a table
dis. (disertacio)
Luận án
A complete work on a specific subject
ed. (eldonita de)
Biên tập (bởi)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
ekz. (ekzemplo)
Used when giving an example
prec. (precipe)
Đặc biệt (là)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
v.v... (vân vân)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
fig. (figuro)
Biểu đồ
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
t.e. (tio estas)
Tức là/Nghĩa là
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
ink. (inkluzive)
Bao gồm
Used when adding something to a list
N.B. (notu bene)
Ghi chú
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
p. (paĝo)
tr. (trang)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
pj. (paĝoj)
tr. (trang)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
pref. (prefaco)
Lời tựa/Lời nói đầu
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
eld. (eldonita de)
Tác giả
Used to name the person who has published the work
rev. (reviziita de)
Hiệu chỉnh (bởi)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
rep. (represo)
Tái bản
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
trad. (tradukita de)
Người dịch
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volumo)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work