German | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Liitteet
Ah. (Anhang)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
n. (noin)
ugf. (ungefähr)
Used when quantity is unknown
Bibliografia
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
List of sources used
n. (noin)
ca. (circa)
Used when estimating a quantity
kpl (kappale)
K. (Kapitel)
A defined section of the work
Pylväs
Spalte
The vertical part of a table
Väitöskirja
Diss. (Dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
toim. (toimittanut)
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
esim. (esimerkiksi)
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
Used when giving an example
erityisesti
bes. (besonders)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
jne. (ja niin edelleen)
usw. (und so weiter)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
kaavio
Abb. (Abbildung)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
eli
d.h. (das heißt)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
mukaanlukien
inkl. (inklusive)
Used when adding something to a list
huom. (huomautus)
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
s. (sivu)
S. (Seite)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
sivut
S. (Seiten)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
esipuhe
Vorw. (Vorwort)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
julk. (julkaissut)
hg. (herausgegeben von)
Used to name the person who has published the work
muok. (muokannut)
geä. (geändert)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
lisäpainos
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
kääntänyt
übersetzt von
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volyymi)
Jg. (Jahrgang)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work