Esperanto | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Ah. (Anhang)
ap. (apendico)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
ugf. (ungefähr)
proks. (proksimume)
Used when quantity is unknown
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
bibliog. (bibliografio)
List of sources used
ca. (circa)
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
Used when estimating a quantity
K. (Kapitel)
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
A defined section of the work
Spalte
kol. (kolono)
The vertical part of a table
Diss. (Dissertation)
dis. (disertacio)
A complete work on a specific subject
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
ed. (eldonita de)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
ekz. (ekzemplo)
Used when giving an example
bes. (besonders)
prec. (precipe)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
usw. (und so weiter)
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
Abb. (Abbildung)
fig. (figuro)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
d.h. (das heißt)
t.e. (tio estas)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
inkl. (inklusive)
ink. (inkluzive)
Used when adding something to a list
N.B. (nota bene)
N.B. (notu bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
S. (Seite)
p. (paĝo)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
S. (Seiten)
pj. (paĝoj)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Vorw. (Vorwort)
pref. (prefaco)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
hg. (herausgegeben von)
eld. (eldonita de)
Used to name the person who has published the work
geä. (geändert)
rev. (reviziita de)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
rep. (represo)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
übersetzt von
trad. (tradukita de)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
Jg. (Jahrgang)
vol. (volumo)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work