German | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Ah. (Anhang)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
ok. (około)
ugf. (ungefähr)
Used when quantity is unknown
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
List of sources used
ca. (circa)
Used when estimating a quantity
rozdz. (rozdział)
K. (Kapitel)
A defined section of the work
The vertical part of a table
Diss. (Dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
pod red. (pod redakcją)
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
np. (na przykład)
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
Used when giving an example
bes. (besonders)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
itd. (i tak dalej) . itp. (i tym podobne)
usw. (und so weiter)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
rys. (rysunek)
Abb. (Abbildung)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
tj. (to jest)
d.h. (das heißt)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
inkl. (inklusive)
Used when adding something to a list
nb. (notabene/nota bene)
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
str. (strona)
S. (Seite)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
str. (strony)
S. (Seiten)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Vorw. (Vorwort)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
wyd. (wydawnictwo)
hg. (herausgegeben von)
Used to name the person who has published the work
geä. (geändert)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
tłum. (tłumaczenie)
übersetzt von
Used when the work has been translated into another language
t. (tom)
Jg. (Jahrgang)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work