German | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

ap. (apêndice)
apênd. (apêndice)
Ah. (Anhang)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
aprox. (aproximadamente)
ugf. (ungefähr)
Used when quantity is unknown
bibliogr. (bibliografia)
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
List of sources used
ca. (circa)
Used when estimating a quantity
cap. (capítulo)
K. (Kapitel)
A defined section of the work
col. (coluna)
The vertical part of a table
Diss. (Dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
ed. (edição)
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
p.ex. (por exemplo)
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
Used when giving an example
bes. (besonders)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
etc. (et cetera)
usw. (und so weiter)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
fig. (figura)
Abb. (Abbildung)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
i.e. (id est)
d.h. (das heißt)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
inkl. (inklusive)
Used when adding something to a list
N.B. (nota bene)
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
p. (página)
S. (Seite)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
pp. (páginas)
S. (Seiten)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Vorw. (Vorwort)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
E. (editor)
EE. (editores)
hg. (herausgegeben von)
Used to name the person who has published the work
revisado por
geä. (geändert)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
Trad. (tradução)
übersetzt von
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volume)
Jg. (Jahrgang)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work