Esperanto | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

ap. (apendico)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
ung. (ungefär)
proks. (proksimume)
Used when quantity is unknown
Litt.förteckn. (Litteraturförteckning)
bibliog. (bibliografio)
List of sources used
ca. (cirka)
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
Used when estimating a quantity
kap. (kapitel)
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
A defined section of the work
kol. (kolono)
The vertical part of a table
dis. (disertacio)
A complete work on a specific subject
red. (redigerad av)
ed. (eldonita de)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
t.ex. (till exempel)
ekz. (ekzemplo)
Used when giving an example
prec. (precipe)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
etc. (et cetera)
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
fig. (figuro)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
d.v.s. (det vill säga)
t.e. (tio estas)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
inkl. (inklusive)
ink. (inkluzive)
Used when adding something to a list
obs (observera)
N.B. (notu bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
s. (sida)
p. (paĝo)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
s. (sidor)
pj. (paĝoj)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
pref. (prefaco)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
publicerad av
eld. (eldonita de)
Used to name the person who has published the work
rev. (reviderad av)
rev. (reviziita de)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
rep. (represo)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
övers. (översättning)
trad. (tradukita de)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volym)
vol. (volumo)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work