Esperanto | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Phụ lục
ap. (apendico)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
Xấp xỉ
proks. (proksimume)
Used when quantity is unknown
Thư mục
bibliog. (bibliografio)
List of sources used
vào khoảng
ĉi. (ĉirkaŭ)
Used when estimating a quantity
ĉa. (ĉapitro)
A defined section of the work
kol. (kolono)
The vertical part of a table
Luận án
dis. (disertacio)
A complete work on a specific subject
Biên tập (bởi)
ed. (eldonita de)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
ekz. (ekzemplo)
Used when giving an example
Đặc biệt (là)
prec. (precipe)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
v.v... (vân vân)
ktp. (kaj tiel plu)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
Biểu đồ
fig. (figuro)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
Tức là/Nghĩa là
t.e. (tio estas)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
Bao gồm
ink. (inkluzive)
Used when adding something to a list
Ghi chú
N.B. (notu bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
tr. (trang)
p. (paĝo)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
tr. (trang)
pj. (paĝoj)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Lời tựa/Lời nói đầu
pref. (prefaco)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
Tác giả
eld. (eldonita de)
Used to name the person who has published the work
Hiệu chỉnh (bởi)
rev. (reviziita de)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Tái bản
rep. (represo)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
Người dịch
trad. (tradukita de)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volumo)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work