French | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Phụ lục
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
Xấp xỉ
approx. (approximativement)
Used when quantity is unknown
Thư mục
biblio. (bibliographie)
List of sources used
vào khoảng
env. (environ)
Used when estimating a quantity
ch. (chapitre)
A defined section of the work
col. (colonne)
The vertical part of a table
Luận án
diss. (dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
Biên tập (bởi)
éd. (édition)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
ex. (exemple)
Used when giving an example
Đặc biệt (là)
spéc. (spécialement)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
v.v... (vân vân)
etc. (et cetera)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
Biểu đồ
fig. (figure)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
Tức là/Nghĩa là
c.-à-d. (c'est-à-dire)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
Bao gồm
incl. (incluant)
Used when adding something to a list
Ghi chú
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
tr. (trang)
p. (page)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
tr. (trang)
pp. (pages)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Lời tựa/Lời nói đầu
préf. (préface)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
Tác giả
éd. (édité par)
Used to name the person who has published the work
Hiệu chỉnh (bởi)
rev. (revu par)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Tái bản
réimp. (réimpression)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
Người dịch
trad. (traduit par)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
vol. (volume)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work