German | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Phụ lục
Ah. (Anhang)
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
Xấp xỉ
ugf. (ungefähr)
Used when quantity is unknown
Thư mục
Lit.-Verz. (Literaturverzeichnis)
List of sources used
vào khoảng
ca. (circa)
Used when estimating a quantity
K. (Kapitel)
A defined section of the work
The vertical part of a table
Luận án
Diss. (Dissertation)
A complete work on a specific subject
Biên tập (bởi)
bearb. (bearbeitet von)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
z.B. (zum Beispiel)
Used when giving an example
Đặc biệt (là)
bes. (besonders)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
v.v... (vân vân)
usw. (und so weiter)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
Biểu đồ
Abb. (Abbildung)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
Tức là/Nghĩa là
d.h. (das heißt)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
Bao gồm
inkl. (inklusive)
Used when adding something to a list
Ghi chú
N.B. (nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
tr. (trang)
S. (Seite)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
tr. (trang)
S. (Seiten)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Lời tựa/Lời nói đầu
Vorw. (Vorwort)
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
Tác giả
hg. (herausgegeben von)
Used to name the person who has published the work
Hiệu chỉnh (bởi)
geä. (geändert)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Tái bản
Nachdr. (Nachdruck)
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
Người dịch
übersetzt von
Used when the work has been translated into another language
Jg. (Jahrgang)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work