Polish | Phrases - Academic | Abbreviations

Abbreviations - Academic Abbreviations

Phụ lục
Used when there are relevant files added to the work
Xấp xỉ
ok. (około)
Used when quantity is unknown
Thư mục
List of sources used
vào khoảng
Used when estimating a quantity
rozdz. (rozdział)
A defined section of the work
The vertical part of a table
Luận án
A complete work on a specific subject
Biên tập (bởi)
pod red. (pod redakcją)
Used when the work has been altered by a third party
np. (na przykład)
Used when giving an example
Đặc biệt (là)
Used when trying to define something more clearly
v.v... (vân vân)
itd. (i tak dalej) . itp. (i tym podobne)
Used when stating an infinite list, literally meaning 'and so forth'
Biểu đồ
rys. (rysunek)
A diagram that accompanies part of the work
Tức là/Nghĩa là
tj. (to jest)
Used when developing an idea, literally meaning 'therefore' or 'that is'
Bao gồm
Used when adding something to a list
Ghi chú
nb. (notabene/nota bene)
Used when a person is required to take note of something important
tr. (trang)
str. (strona)
Each individual side of paper in a manuscript
tr. (trang)
str. (strony)
Several sides of paper in a manuscript
Lời tựa/Lời nói đầu
A short paragraph that provides a background to a study
Tác giả
wyd. (wydawnictwo)
Used to name the person who has published the work
Hiệu chỉnh (bởi)
Used when the work has been altered slightly by someone to make it more relevant to the current audience
Tái bản
Used when the work is not an original, but a direct copy
Người dịch
tłum. (tłumaczenie)
Used when the work has been translated into another language
t. (tom)
Indicates a specific volume or section of work