English | Phrases - Academic | Main Body

Main Body - Agreeing

Ogólnie mówiąc, zgadzam się z..., ponieważ...
Broadly speaking, I agree with… because…
Used when in general agreement with someone else's point of view
Stanowczo zgadzam się z jednym z nich..., ponieważ...
One is very much inclined to agree with… because…
Used when in general agreement with someone else's point of view
Rozumiem jej/jego punkt widzenia.
I can see his/her point.
Used when you believe someone else's point of view is valid, but you do not fully agree
W pełni się zgadzam z...
I entirely agree that…
Used when in complete agreement with someone else's point of view
Zgadzam się całkowicie z opinią, że...
I endorse wholeheartedly the opinion that…
Used when in complete agreement with someone else's point of view

Main Body - Disagreeing

Ogólnie mówiąc, nie zgadzam się z..., ponieważ...
Broadly speaking, I disagree with… because…
Used when in general disagreement with someone else's point of view
Stanowczo nie zgadzam się z jednym z ... , ponieważ...
One is very much inclined to disagree with… because…
Used when in general disagreement with someone else's point of view
Rozumiem jego punkt widzenia, ale w żaden sposób nie mogę go poprzeć.
I can see his point, but disagree with it entirely.
Used when you understand someone else's point of view, but you do not agree with it at all
Stanowczo nie zgadzam się z opinią, że...
I strongly disagree that…
Used when in complete disagreement with someone else's point of view
Jestem zdecydowanie przeciwny stanowisku, że...
I am firmly opposed to the idea that…
Used when in complete opposition to someone else's point of view

Main Body - Comparisons

...i...są podobne/różne w odniesieniu do...
…and…are similar/different as regards to…
An informal way of stating specific similarities or comparisons between two things
W przeciwieństwie do..., ...pokazuje...
In contrast to…, …shows…
Used when wanting to emphasize the difference between two things
...w przeciwieństwie do ... jest / są...
…by contrast with… is/are…
Used when wanting to emphasize the difference between two things
...jest podobna do ... w odniesieniu do...
…is similar to… in respect of…
Used when wanting to emphasize and explain a similarity between two things
....i...rożnią się pod względem...
…and… differ in terms of...
Used when wanting to emphasize and explain a difference between two things
Pierwszy ..., natomiast drugi ...
The first…, by contrast, the second…
Used when wanting to emphasize the difference between two things
Jednym z głównych podobieństw/Jedną z głównych różnic między...i...jest to, że...
One of the main similarities/differences between… and… is that…
Used when stating specific similarities or comparisons between two things
Jedną z różnic pomiędzy...i... jest fakt, że...
One difference between… and… is that…, whereas…
Used to highlight a difference between two things, can be the start of a long list of differences

Main Body - Opinions

Powiedziałbym, że...
I would say that…
Used to give a personal opinion, of which you are not fully confident
Wydaje mi się, że...
It seems to me that…
Used to give a personal opinion, of which you are not fully confident
Moim zdaniem...
In my opinion…
Used to give a personal opinion
Z mojego punktu widzenia...
From my point of view…
Used to give a personal opinion
Jestem zdania, że...
I am of the opinion that…
Used to give a personal opinion
Uważam, że istnieje kilka powodów. Po pierwsze,... Po drugie...
I believe that there are several reasons. Firstly,… Secondly…
Used when wanting to list many reasons for something
Jestem przekonany/a, że..., ponieważ...
It is my belief that… because…
Used to give a personal opinion that you are sure of and an explanation of said opinion

Main Body - Connecting Elements

Przeanalizujmy teraz/Powróćmy do/Zbadajmy...
Let us now analyze/turn to/examine…
Used when changing subject and to start a new paragraph
Jest teraz jasne, że... . Zwróćmy zatem uwagę na...
It is now clear that… . Let us turn our attention to…
Used when changing subject and to start a new paragraph
Ponadto, istnieje argument przeciw, który nie może zostać zignorowany: ...
Moreover, one argument against this cannot be ignored: …
Used when adding important information to an already developed argument
Wprawdzie..., ale...
Admittedly…, but…
Used when conceding a counter-argument, but wanting to suggest further analysis of your own
To prawda, że..., ale faktem pozostaje, iż...
It is true that…, yet the fact remains that…
Used when conceding a counter-argument, but wanting to suggest further analysis of your own
Bezsprzecznie...., aczkolwiek...
Granted, …, nevertheless…
Used when conceding a counter-argument, but wanting to suggest further analysis of your own
Przeciwnie, ...
On the contrary, …
Used when correcting a mistaken belief, after said belief has been stated
Z jednej strony...
On the one hand…
Used to introduce one side of an argument
Z drugiej strony...
On the other hand…
Used to show another side of an argument. Always used after "on the one hand…"
Pomimo/Wbrew...
In spite of…
Used when making an argument, which goes against certain data or beliefs
Pomimo faktu, że...
Despite the fact that…
Used when making an argument, which goes against certain data or beliefs
Naukowo/Historycznie rzecz biorąc...
Scientifically/Historically speaking…
Used when referring to science or past events in history
Nawiasem mówiąc, ...
Incidentally…
Used when an additional point is thought of that can support your analysis
Ponadto...
Furthermore…
Used when developing a point to a high analytical level