English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

سأقوم في هذه المقالة \ الورقة \ الأطروحة بدراسة \ فحص \ تقييم \ تحليل
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
للإجابة عن هذا السؤال، نبدأ بإلقاء نظرة فاحصة على...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
السؤال هو ما إذا...كان قد شغل الخبراء لبعض الوقت.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
من الحقائق المتعارف عليها جيدا أنّ...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
لقد كُتب وقيل الكثير حول...
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
من المتفق عليه اليوم بشكل عام أنّ...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
سنقوم بعد ذلك بمراجعة العوامل...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
سنقوم بالاعتماد على هذا التحليل بتحديد...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
أحد المواضيع الملحّة... هو...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
كظاهرة تجريبية، ... وقع ملاحظتها بشكل متكرر.
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
السؤال المحوري الذي تأسست عليه هذه الورقة هو: ...
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
يستعرض هذا البحث أسباب...
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
اقترح مؤلفو الدراسات الحديثة أنّ...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
هدفنا هو أنْ...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
من خلال فحص... بشكل تجريبيّ، نأمل أن نصل إلى فهم أكثر إلماماً بـ...
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

تعني... بحكم التعريف...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
سيتمّ، لأجل أهداف هذه المقالة، فهمُ المصطلح... على أساس أنه يعني...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
من المهم توخّي الوضوح عند تعريف...
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
يشير مصطلح... إلى...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
يقترح النموذج المتعارف عليه أنّ... يمكن تعريفُه بِـ...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
وِفْقاَ لِـ...، يُعرَّفُ بـ...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...يُمكنُ تعريفهُ بطرق عديدة. يذهبُ بعضُ الناسِ إلى أنَّ المصطلح يشير إلى...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...يُفْهمُ عادةً على أنّه يعْني...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
ما يخْطُر على بالِنا عادة حين نتحدّثُ عن...هو
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
مثالان قصيران قد يستطيعان أن يُوَضِّحا هذا المفهوم.
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
من المهم التأكيد على...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
سنَصُبّ تركيزنا على...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
لا بُدَّ لنا في، النهاية، من توضيح تعريفنا لـ...
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
ما نَعْنيه هو أنّ ذلك...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
تم اقتراحُ العديد من التفسيرات.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
نستطيع أن نقول إنّ جذور هذه التفسيرات توجد في...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
هذه التفسيرات تكمّل بعضها البعض وتساعد في إلقاء الضوء على ظاهرة...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
بناء على...، زعمَ بعضُ العلماء أنّ...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

يصبح السؤالُ المحوريُّ حينها: كيف يستطيع... أنْ يُؤثّر... ؟
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
نظراً لوجودِ هذا الدليل على...، فإنّ دراسة العوامل التي تؤثر على... تبدو مُبرَّرة.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
منذ حوالي عشر سنوات،... و... بدؤوا نقاشا يتمحور حول هذا السؤال: هل...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
يتناول البحثُ... من خلال تطوير واختبار مجموعة من الفرضيات التي تشير إلى كيفية تأثير... على...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
هكذا، ومن خلال التفكير المنطقيّ المقترح مِن...، فإنّنا نفترضُ أنّ...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
تم تشكيلُ بعضِ هذه الحجج عن طريق...، ولكن لم يتمّ اختبار أيّ منها.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
تشير الادلّةُ المستخرجة من هذه الدراسة إلى مجموعة متنوعة من العوامل المتعلقة بـ...
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
وجد ارتباطا كبيرا بين... و...
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own