English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

在这篇论文/报告中,我将研究/调查/评估/分析…
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
要回答这个问题,我们首先来看一下...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
是否...的问题,相关领域的专家已经关注一段时间了。
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
众所周知...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
关于...已有大量书面和口头的讨论。
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
如今,大家普遍认为...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
我们审视...等方面。
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
在此分析基础上,我们论证...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
在...领域,学者们普遍认为...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
根据实证研究,...现象已被重点关注。
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
据此背景,写这篇论文要解决的核心问题是...
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
这项研究探寻...的原因
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
近期相关研究的作者建议...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
我们的目的是...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
通过对...实证研究,我们希望能够对...有一个更全面的理解
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

根据定义,...的意思是...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
在这篇论文中,术语...的意思是...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
明确...的定义很重要
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
术语...指...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
根据标准模型,...可以被定义为...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
根据...,...被定义为...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...有很多种定义。有些人认为此术语指...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...普遍被认为是指...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
提到...,通常我们想到的是...
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
两个简短的例子可以解释这一概念。
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
强调...很重要
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
我们的关注点在...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
最后,我们应该明确对...的定义
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
我们的意思是...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
就此可以提供几种解释。
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
我们可以定性这些解释,它们是基于...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
这些解释相互补充,有助于阐明...的现象
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
根据...,其他学者认为...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

那么核心问题是:...将如何影响...?
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
根据对...的证据,对...的影响因素的研究看起来是有必要的。
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
十多年前,...和...就是否...的问题展开一场争论。
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
这项研究涉及...,通过建立和检验一系列假设说明...是如何影响...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
因此,根据...阐述的推理,我们推测...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
其中一些论点已被...规范化,但并没有被检测过。
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
研究表明多种因素与...相关
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...发现...和...存在重要关联
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own