English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

V této eseji/seminární práci budu přezkoumávat/vyšetřovat/hodnotit/analyzovat...
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
Abychom na tuto otázku mohli odpovědět, zaměříme se nejdříve na...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
Otázka, zda... poutá pozornost odborníků již delší dobu.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
Je obecně známým faktem, že...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
Hodně bylo napsáno a řečeno o...
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
Panuje obecná shoda nad tím, že...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
Přezkoumali jsme tedy faktory...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Na základě analýzy jsme identifikovali...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Přetrvávající otázka v...je...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
Empiricky byl/a opakovaně pozorován/a...
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
Na základě těchto podkladů je ústřední otázkou této práce: ...
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
Tento výzkum zkoumá příčiny...
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
Autoři nejnovějších studií navrhují...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Našim cílem je...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
Díky empirického zkoumání...doufáme, že dojde k hlubšímu pochopení...
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

Podle definice...znamená...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
Pro účely této eseje se pod termínem...rozumí...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
Je důležité si ujasnit definici...
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
Termín...odkazuje na...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
Standardní model naznačuje, že... lze definovat jako...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Podle... je definován/a jako...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...může být definován mnoha způsoby. Někteří zástupci veřejnosti tvrdí, že pojem označuje...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...se obecně rozumí...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Co máme obvykle na mysli, když mluvíme o..., je...
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Tento koncept objasňují dva stručné příklady.
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
Je důležité zdůraznit...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Zaměřujeme se na...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
Nakonec bychom měli objasnit danou definici...
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
To, co máme na mysli, je...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Bylo navrhnuto několik definic.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
Tato vysvětlení vychází z...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
Tato vysvětlení se vzájemně doplňují a pomáhají osvětlit fenomén...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Ohledně... odborníci argumentovali, že...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

Tímto narážíme na ústřední otázku: jak by mohl ... mít vliv na ...?
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Při přihlédnutí na důkazní materiály ohledně... se zkoumání faktorů, které mají dopad na ... , zdá být oprávněné.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Více než před deseti lety... a ... začal debatu zaměřenou na tuto otázku: zda...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Tento výzkum adresuje otázku... od vývoje a testování hypotéz indikující, jak ... ovlivňuje...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Vycházejíce z dedukce/úvahy (podle) ... předpokládáme, že ...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Některé z těchto argumentů byly formulovány..., ale žádné z nich nebyly testovány.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
Důkazy z těchto studií naznačují řadu faktorů souvisejících s ...
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
... nalezl(a) významné korelace mezi ... a ...
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own