Arabic | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
سأقوم في هذه المقالة \ الورقة \ الأطروحة بدراسة \ فحص \ تقييم \ تحليل
General opening for an essay/thesis
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
للإجابة عن هذا السؤال، نبدأ بإلقاء نظرة فاحصة على...
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
السؤال هو ما إذا...كان قد شغل الخبراء لبعض الوقت.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is a well-known fact that…
من الحقائق المتعارف عليها جيدا أنّ...
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
A great deal is being written and said about…
لقد كُتب وقيل الكثير حول...
General opening to introduce a subject
It is generally agreed today that…
من المتفق عليه اليوم بشكل عام أنّ...
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
We then review the factors…
سنقوم بعد ذلك بمراجعة العوامل...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
We build on this analysis to identify…
سنقوم بالاعتماد على هذا التحليل بتحديد...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
A persistent theme in...is…
أحد المواضيع الملحّة... هو...
Introducing the main themes
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
كظاهرة تجريبية، ... وقع ملاحظتها بشكل متكرر.
To emphasize the importance of your study
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
السؤال المحوري الذي تأسست عليه هذه الورقة هو: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
This research explores the causes of…
يستعرض هذا البحث أسباب...
Specific statement of intention for your research
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
اقترح مؤلفو الدراسات الحديثة أنّ...
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Our purpose is to…
هدفنا هو أنْ...
Used to state the main aims of the study
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
من خلال فحص... بشكل تجريبيّ، نأمل أن نصل إلى فهم أكثر إلماماً بـ...
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

By definition… means…
تعني... بحكم التعريف...
Used to define a certain word
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
سيتمّ، لأجل أهداف هذه المقالة، فهمُ المصطلح... على أساس أنه يعني...
Used to define a certain word
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
من المهم توخّي الوضوح عند تعريف...
Used to define a certain word
The term… refers to…
يشير مصطلح... إلى...
Used to define a certain word
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
يقترح النموذج المتعارف عليه أنّ... يمكن تعريفُه بِـ...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
According to..., …is defined as…
وِفْقاَ لِـ...، يُعرَّفُ بـ...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
...يُمكنُ تعريفهُ بطرق عديدة. يذهبُ بعضُ الناسِ إلى أنَّ المصطلح يشير إلى...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…is commonly understood to mean…
...يُفْهمُ عادةً على أنّه يعْني...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
ما يخْطُر على بالِنا عادة حين نتحدّثُ عن...هو
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
مثالان قصيران قد يستطيعان أن يُوَضِّحا هذا المفهوم.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
It is important to emphasize…
من المهم التأكيد على...
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Our focus is on…
سنَصُبّ تركيزنا على...
A casual way to define a certain word
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
لا بُدَّ لنا في، النهاية، من توضيح تعريفنا لـ...
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
What we mean is that…
ما نَعْنيه هو أنّ ذلك...
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Several explanations have been offered.
تم اقتراحُ العديد من التفسيرات.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
نستطيع أن نقول إنّ جذور هذه التفسيرات توجد في...
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
هذه التفسيرات تكمّل بعضها البعض وتساعد في إلقاء الضوء على ظاهرة...
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Following..., scholars have argued that …
بناء على...، زعمَ بعضُ العلماء أنّ...
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
يصبح السؤالُ المحوريُّ حينها: كيف يستطيع... أنْ يُؤثّر... ؟
Used to present the main hypothesis
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
نظراً لوجودِ هذا الدليل على...، فإنّ دراسة العوامل التي تؤثر على... تبدو مُبرَّرة.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
منذ حوالي عشر سنوات،... و... بدؤوا نقاشا يتمحور حول هذا السؤال: هل...
Used to present the main hypothesis
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
يتناول البحثُ... من خلال تطوير واختبار مجموعة من الفرضيات التي تشير إلى كيفية تأثير... على...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
هكذا، ومن خلال التفكير المنطقيّ المقترح مِن...، فإنّنا نفترضُ أنّ...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
تم تشكيلُ بعضِ هذه الحجج عن طريق...، ولكن لم يتمّ اختبار أيّ منها.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
تشير الادلّةُ المستخرجة من هذه الدراسة إلى مجموعة متنوعة من العوامل المتعلقة بـ...
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...found a significant correlation between… and…
وجد ارتباطا كبيرا بين... و...
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own