Czech | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
V této eseji/seminární práci budu přezkoumávat/vyšetřovat/hodnotit/analyzovat...
General opening for an essay/thesis
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
Abychom na tuto otázku mohli odpovědět, zaměříme se nejdříve na...
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
Otázka, zda... poutá pozornost odborníků již delší dobu.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is a well-known fact that…
Je obecně známým faktem, že...
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
A great deal is being written and said about…
Hodně bylo napsáno a řečeno o...
General opening to introduce a subject
It is generally agreed today that…
Panuje obecná shoda nad tím, že...
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
We then review the factors…
Přezkoumali jsme tedy faktory...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
We build on this analysis to identify…
Na základě analýzy jsme identifikovali...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
A persistent theme in...is…
Přetrvávající otázka v...je...
Introducing the main themes
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
Empiricky byl/a opakovaně pozorován/a...
To emphasize the importance of your study
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Na základě těchto podkladů je ústřední otázkou této práce: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
This research explores the causes of…
Tento výzkum zkoumá příčiny...
Specific statement of intention for your research
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Autoři nejnovějších studií navrhují...
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Our purpose is to…
Našim cílem je...
Used to state the main aims of the study
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Díky empirického zkoumání...doufáme, že dojde k hlubšímu pochopení...
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

By definition… means…
Podle definice...znamená...
Used to define a certain word
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Pro účely této eseje se pod termínem...rozumí...
Used to define a certain word
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Je důležité si ujasnit definici...
Used to define a certain word
The term… refers to…
Termín...odkazuje na...
Used to define a certain word
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Standardní model naznačuje, že... lze definovat jako...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
According to..., …is defined as…
Podle... je definován/a jako...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
...může být definován mnoha způsoby. Někteří zástupci veřejnosti tvrdí, že pojem označuje...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…is commonly understood to mean…
...se obecně rozumí...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Co máme obvykle na mysli, když mluvíme o..., je...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
Tento koncept objasňují dva stručné příklady.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
It is important to emphasize…
Je důležité zdůraznit...
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Our focus is on…
Zaměřujeme se na...
A casual way to define a certain word
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Nakonec bychom měli objasnit danou definici...
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
What we mean is that…
To, co máme na mysli, je...
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Several explanations have been offered.
Bylo navrhnuto několik definic.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Tato vysvětlení vychází z...
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Tato vysvětlení se vzájemně doplňují a pomáhají osvětlit fenomén...
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Ohledně... odborníci argumentovali, že...
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Tímto narážíme na ústřední otázku: jak by mohl ... mít vliv na ...?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Při přihlédnutí na důkazní materiály ohledně... se zkoumání faktorů, které mají dopad na ... , zdá být oprávněné.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Více než před deseti lety... a ... začal debatu zaměřenou na tuto otázku: zda...
Used to present the main hypothesis
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Tento výzkum adresuje otázku... od vývoje a testování hypotéz indikující, jak ... ovlivňuje...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Vycházejíce z dedukce/úvahy (podle) ... předpokládáme, že ...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Některé z těchto argumentů byly formulovány..., ale žádné z nich nebyly testovány.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Důkazy z těchto studií naznačují řadu faktorů souvisejících s ...
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...found a significant correlation between… and…
... nalezl(a) významné korelace mezi ... a ...
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own