French | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
Dans ce travail / cet essai / cette thèse, j'examinerai / j'enquêterai / j'évaluerai / j'analyserai...
General opening for an essay/thesis
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
Pour répondre à cette question, nous commencerons par regarder de plus près...
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
La question de savoir si... a préoccupé les experts depuis un certain temps.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is a well-known fact that…
C'est un fait bien connu que...
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
A great deal is being written and said about…
On a beaucoup parlé et écrit sur...
General opening to introduce a subject
It is generally agreed today that…
De nos jours, il est convenu que...
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
We then review the factors…
Nous analyserons ensuite les points...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
We build on this analysis to identify…
Nous continuerons l'analyse afin d'identifier...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
A persistent theme in...is…
Un thème récurrent est...
Introducing the main themes
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
Le phénomène... a été observé à maintes reprises.
To emphasize the importance of your study
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
La question principale qui est à l'origine de cette étude est :
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
This research explores the causes of…
Ce travail explore les causes de...
Specific statement of intention for your research
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Certains auteurs d'études plus récentes ont suggéré que...
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Our purpose is to…
Notre but est de...
Used to state the main aims of the study
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
En examinant de façon empirique... ,nous espérons arriver à une compréhension plus complète de...
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

By definition… means…
Par définition... signifie...
Used to define a certain word
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Pour les objectifs de cet essai, le terme... sera compris au sens de...
Used to define a certain word
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Il est important d'être clair quant à la définition de...
Used to define a certain word
The term… refers to…
Le terme... fait référence à...
Used to define a certain word
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
La norme veut que... soit défini en tant que...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
According to..., …is defined as…
Selon..., ...est défini en tant que...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
...peut avoir plusieurs sens. Certaines personnes argumentent que le terme dénote...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…is commonly understood to mean…
...est communément compris comme...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Ce à quoi nous pensons quand nous parlons de... est...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
Deux courts exemples pourraient éclairer ce concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
It is important to emphasize…
Il est important de mettre en valeur...
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Our focus is on…
Nous concentrons notre attention sur...
A casual way to define a certain word
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Enfin, il serait nécessaire de clarifier notre définition de...
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
What we mean is that…
Ce que nous entendons par là est que...
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Several explanations have been offered.
Plusieurs explications ont été proposées.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Ces explications trouvent leur origine dans...
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Ces explications se complètent et permettent d'éclaircir le phénomène de...
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Suivant l'idée de..., certains experts ont proposé que...
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
La question centrale devient alors : comment... pourrait affecter...?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Étant donné que..., un examen des facteurs qui ont un impact sur... semble justifié.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Il y a plus de dix ans, ...et... ouvrirent un débat autour de cette question : ...
Used to present the main hypothesis
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Cette étude s'adresse à... en développant et testant une série d'hypothèses indiquant comment... agit sur...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Ainsi, en suivant le raisonnement proposé par..., nous soumettrons l'hypothèse que...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Certains de ces arguments ont été validés par..., mais aucun n'a été testé.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
La preuve apportée par ces études suggère qu'une variété de facteurs en rapport à...
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...found a significant correlation between… and…
...a trouvé une corrélation importante entre... et...
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own