Hindi | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
इस निबंध मे मैं... के विषय मे विश्लेषण करना चाहता/चाहती हूँ.
General opening for an essay/thesis
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
इसका उत्तर हमे मिलेगा जब हम... पर एक गहरी नज़र दालें.
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
... के बारे में विशेषज्ञों की चर्चा अभी भी जारी है.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is a well-known fact that…
... यह बात जाना-माना है.
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
A great deal is being written and said about…
... इस विषय मे बहुत कुच लिखा पढ़ा जा रहा है.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is generally agreed today that…
आज कल सभी सहमत है इस बात से कि...
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
We then review the factors…
अब हम कारकों की समीक्षा करेंगे...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
We build on this analysis to identify…
इस विश्लेषण पर विस्तार करते हुए मैं यह स्पष्ट करना चाहूँगा/चाहूँगी कि...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
A persistent theme in...is…
एक विषय जो... में बारबार दिखाई देता है, वह है...
Introducing the main themes
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
प्रयोगसिद्ध रूप से यह बात अक्सर मानी जाती है कि...
To emphasize the importance of your study
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
इस तवारीख को जानते हुए, इस निबंध में मैं मूल तौर पर... का प्रश्न प्रदर्शित करना चाहूँगा.
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
This research explores the causes of…
यह अनुसंधन... के कारक तलाशता है.
Specific statement of intention for your research
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
आधुनिक अध्ययनों के प्रणेताओं का मानना है कि...
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Our purpose is to…
हमारा लक्ष्य है कि...
Used to state the main aims of the study
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
... का प्रयोगाश्रित अध्ययन कर के हम ... का एक विशिष्ट विवरण दिखाना चाहेँगे.
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

By definition… means…
... की परिभाषा है...
Used to define a certain word
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
इस निबंध के संदर्भ के लिए हम... का अर्थ... लेँगे.
Used to define a certain word
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
... इस शब्द के अर्थ को ठीक तरह समझना इस निबंध के लिए बहुत ज़रूरी है.
Used to define a certain word
The term… refers to…
... का अर्थ है...
Used to define a certain word
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
सामान्य रूप से... का अर्थ... हो सकता है.
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
According to..., …is defined as…
... के अनुसार, ... का अर्थ है...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
... के बहुत सारे अर्थ हो सकते हैं. कछ लोगों का मानना है कि इस शब्द का अर्थ है...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…is commonly understood to mean…
... का साधारणतः अर्थ होता है...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
जब हम... के बारे में बात करते है, तो बहुधा हमारे मन में... होता है.
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
इस विचार को मैं दो छोटे उदाहरणों की मदद से स्पष्ट करना चाहूँगा
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
It is important to emphasize…
यह ध्यान मे रखना जरूरी है कि...
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Our focus is on…
हमारा मूल विषय है...
A casual way to define a certain word
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
अंत में... का अर्थ हमे स्पष्ट करना जरूरी है.
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
What we mean is that…
हमारा मतलब है कि...
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Several explanations have been offered.
... के लिए बहुत सारे स्पष्टीकरण का उपयोग किया जा सकता है.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
हम इन स्पष्टीकरणों को... पर आधारित बता सकते हैं.
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
इन दोनो उदाहरणों को मिलकर देखें तो यह स्पष्ट होता है कि...
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Following..., scholars have argued that …
... के बाद, विद्वानों ने तर्क किया है कि...
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
मुख्य प्रश्न यह बन जाता है कि..., ... को किस तरह प्रभावित करता है.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
... को देखा जाए तो, ... को प्रभावित करनेवाली चीज़ों पर एक गहरी नज़र डालना उचित सिद्ध होता है.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
कई वर्षों पहले, ... और ... ने इस विषय पर विवाद आरंभ किया था कि...
Used to present the main hypothesis
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
... के प्रश्न पर अध्ययन करने के लिए, ... का प्रभाव ...पर किस तरह होता है, इसका अनुमान लगाएँगे, और इन अनुमानों का परीक्षण करेंगे.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
इस तरह, ... की दी गई युक्तियों को ध्यान में रखकर, हम यह अनुमान लगा सकते हैं कि...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
इनमें से कुछ शास्त्रार्थों का... के द्वारा निरूपण किया गया है, लेकिन इनका किसी ने परीक्षण नहीं किया है.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
इन परीक्षणों के नतीजे दिखाते हैं कि कई सारी चीजें... संबंधी है.
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...found a significant correlation between… and…
... ने ... और ... के बीच में एक उल्लेखनीय सहसंबंध पाया.
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own