Portuguese | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
Nesta redação/ tese/ dissertação será examinado(a)/ investigado(a)/ avaliado(a)...
General opening for an essay/thesis
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
Para responder esta questão deve-se observar...
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
A questão, se..., tem preocupado os especialistas há algum tempo.
General opening to introduce a subject
It is a well-known fact that…
Sabe-se que.../ É de conhecimento geral que...
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
A great deal is being written and said about…
Muito já foi escrito/ dito sobre...
General opening to introduce a subject
It is generally agreed today that…
É consenso geral que...
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
We then review the factors…
Analisa-se agora os fatores...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
We build on this analysis to identify…
Esta análise visa identificar...
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
A persistent theme in...is…
Um tópico/ assunto frequente em...é...
Introducing the main themes
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
...é observado(a) repetidamente como um fenômeno empírico.
To emphasize the importance of your study
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
De encontro à esta informação, a questão central que motiva este trabalho é...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
This research explores the causes of…
Esta pesquisa explora as causas de/do/da...
Specific statement of intention for your research
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Os autores dos mais recentes estudos propõem que...
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Our purpose is to…
Nosso propósito é...(Importante: em Português não é recomendado redigir trabalhos acadêmicos utilizando a primeira pessoa do singular. A primeira pessoa do plural raramente é usada. Geralmente se escreve na terceira pessoa, do singular ou plural)
Used to state the main aims of the study
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Examinando de forma empírica..., espera-se chegar a um entendimento mais completo sobre...
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

By definition… means…
Por definição, ... significa...
Used to define a certain word
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Neste trabalho a palavra...será considerada como...
Used to define a certain word
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
É importante deixar claro a definição de...
Used to define a certain word
The term… refers to…
O termo...refere-se à/ao...
Used to define a certain word
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
O modelo padrão sugere que...pode ser definido(a) como...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
According to..., …is defined as…
De acordo com...,...é definido(a) como...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
...pode ser definido(a) de diversas formas. Algumas pessoas argumetam que o termo denota...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
…is commonly understood to mean…
...geralmente significa...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Frequentemente se pensa em... quando se fala de...
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
Dois exemplos podem esclarecer este conceito.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
It is important to emphasize…
É importante enfatizar que...
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Our focus is on…
O foco é em/no/na...
A casual way to define a certain word
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Por fim, deve-se esclarecer o sgnificado da palavra...
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
What we mean is that…
O que se quer dizer é...
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Several explanations have been offered.
Diversas explicações foram dadas.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Estas explicações são fundadas em/na/no...
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Estas explicaçõoes complementam uma à outra e exclarecem o fenômeno de/do/da...
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Seguindo..., estudiosos argumentam que...
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
A questão central torna-se a seguinte: como... pode afetar...?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Dado tal evidência para..., a análise dos fatores que impactam...parece justificada.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Há mais de uma década ...e... iniciaram um debate com base na seguinte questão: se...
Used to present the main hypothesis
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Esta pesquisa dirige-se a..., desenvolvendo e testando uma série de hipóteses que indicam como...afeta...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Assim, seguindo o raciocínio estabelecido por ..., admite-se a hipótese que...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Alguns destes argumentos foram previamente formalizados por..., mas nenhum deles foi testado.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
As evidências destes estudos sugerem uma variedade de fatores relativos à/ao...
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...found a significant correlation between… and…
...encontrou significante correlação entre...e...
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own