English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

En tiu eseo/papero tezo, mi ekzamenas/enketas/komputas/analizas...
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
Por respondi tiun demandon, ni komencas per prenante pli proksiman rigardon ĉe...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
La demando, ĉu ... estis interesa la ekspertoj por iu tempo.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
Estas konata fakto, ke...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
Multa estas verkita kaj dirita pri...
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
Ĝi ĝenerale akceptas hodiaŭ, ke...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
Ni tiam reekzamenos la faktoroj...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Ni dependas sur ĉi analizo por identigi...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Daura temo en... estas...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
Kiel empiria fenomeno, ... observis ree.
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
Kontraŭ tiu fono, la centra demando, kiu motivas ĉi paperon estas: ...
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
Tiu esplorado esploras la kaŭzojn de...
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
La aŭtoroj de pli lastatempaj studoj proponis, ke...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Nia celo estas...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
Per empirie ekzamenante..., ni esperas produkti pli kompletan komprenon de...
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

Per difino... signifas...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
Por la celoj de ĉi tiu eseo, la termino... estos prenita por signifi...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
Estas grave, havi certe la difino de...
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
La termino... rilatas al...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
La norma modelo sugestas, ke... povas esti difinita kiel...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Laŭ..., ...estas difinita kiel...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...povas esti difinita laŭ multaj manieroj. Kelkaj personoj argumentas, ke la termino signifas...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...estas kutime komprenita por signifi...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Kion ni kutime havas en menso, kiam ni parolas pri ... estas...
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Du mallongaj ekzemploj povus klarigi tiun koncepton.
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
Gravas emfazi...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Nia fokuso estas sur...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
Fine, ni devas klarigi nian difinon de...
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
Kion ni volas diri, estas ke...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Pluraj klarigoj estis proponitaj.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
Ni povas karakterizi tiujn klarigojn kiel esencaj en...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
Tiuj klarigoj kompletigas unu la alian kaj helpas lumigi la fenomeno de...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Sekvante..., akademiuloj argumentis, ke...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

La centra demando tiam iĝas: Kiel eblas... influas...?
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Donita ĉi evidenteco por..., ekzameno de la faktoroj, kiuj trafas sur... ŝajnas garantiita.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Super jardeko antaŭe, ... kaj ... komencis debaton centranta sur tiun demandon: ĉu ...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Tiu esplorado aldiras... de disvolvi kaj testi serion de hipotezoj indikante kiom... efikas...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Tiel, sekvante la rezonado difinita per..., ni hipotezas, ke...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Iuj de tiuj argumentoj estis determinita de..., sed neniu estis provitaj.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
La evidenteco de tiuj studoj sugestas vario de faktoroj rilatigitaj al...
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...trovis signifan korelacion inter... kaj...
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own