English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

Dans ce travail / cet essai / cette thèse, j'examinerai / j'enquêterai / j'évaluerai / j'analyserai...
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
Pour répondre à cette question, nous commencerons par regarder de plus près...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
La question de savoir si... a préoccupé les experts depuis un certain temps.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
C'est un fait bien connu que...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
On a beaucoup parlé et écrit sur...
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
De nos jours, il est convenu que...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
Nous analyserons ensuite les points...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Nous continuerons l'analyse afin d'identifier...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Un thème récurrent est...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
Le phénomène... a été observé à maintes reprises.
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
La question principale qui est à l'origine de cette étude est :
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
Ce travail explore les causes de...
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
Certains auteurs d'études plus récentes ont suggéré que...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Notre but est de...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
En examinant de façon empirique... ,nous espérons arriver à une compréhension plus complète de...
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

Par définition... signifie...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
Pour les objectifs de cet essai, le terme... sera compris au sens de...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
Il est important d'être clair quant à la définition de...
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
Le terme... fait référence à...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
La norme veut que... soit défini en tant que...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Selon..., ...est défini en tant que...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...peut avoir plusieurs sens. Certaines personnes argumentent que le terme dénote...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...est communément compris comme...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Ce à quoi nous pensons quand nous parlons de... est...
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Deux courts exemples pourraient éclairer ce concept.
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
Il est important de mettre en valeur...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
Nous concentrons notre attention sur...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
Enfin, il serait nécessaire de clarifier notre définition de...
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
Ce que nous entendons par là est que...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Plusieurs explications ont été proposées.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
Ces explications trouvent leur origine dans...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
Ces explications se complètent et permettent d'éclaircir le phénomène de...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Suivant l'idée de..., certains experts ont proposé que...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

La question centrale devient alors : comment... pourrait affecter...?
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Étant donné que..., un examen des facteurs qui ont un impact sur... semble justifié.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Il y a plus de dix ans, ...et... ouvrirent un débat autour de cette question : ...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Cette étude s'adresse à... en développant et testant une série d'hypothèses indiquant comment... agit sur...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Ainsi, en suivant le raisonnement proposé par..., nous soumettrons l'hypothèse que...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Certains de ces arguments ont été validés par..., mais aucun n'a été testé.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
La preuve apportée par ces études suggère qu'une variété de facteurs en rapport à...
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...a trouvé une corrélation importante entre... et...
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own