English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

इस निबंध मे मैं... के विषय मे विश्लेषण करना चाहता/चाहती हूँ.
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
इसका उत्तर हमे मिलेगा जब हम... पर एक गहरी नज़र दालें.
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
... के बारे में विशेषज्ञों की चर्चा अभी भी जारी है.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
... यह बात जाना-माना है.
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
... इस विषय मे बहुत कुच लिखा पढ़ा जा रहा है.
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
आज कल सभी सहमत है इस बात से कि...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
अब हम कारकों की समीक्षा करेंगे...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
इस विश्लेषण पर विस्तार करते हुए मैं यह स्पष्ट करना चाहूँगा/चाहूँगी कि...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
एक विषय जो... में बारबार दिखाई देता है, वह है...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
प्रयोगसिद्ध रूप से यह बात अक्सर मानी जाती है कि...
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
इस तवारीख को जानते हुए, इस निबंध में मैं मूल तौर पर... का प्रश्न प्रदर्शित करना चाहूँगा.
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
यह अनुसंधन... के कारक तलाशता है.
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
आधुनिक अध्ययनों के प्रणेताओं का मानना है कि...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
हमारा लक्ष्य है कि...
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
... का प्रयोगाश्रित अध्ययन कर के हम ... का एक विशिष्ट विवरण दिखाना चाहेँगे.
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

... की परिभाषा है...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
इस निबंध के संदर्भ के लिए हम... का अर्थ... लेँगे.
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
... इस शब्द के अर्थ को ठीक तरह समझना इस निबंध के लिए बहुत ज़रूरी है.
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
... का अर्थ है...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
सामान्य रूप से... का अर्थ... हो सकता है.
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
... के अनुसार, ... का अर्थ है...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
... के बहुत सारे अर्थ हो सकते हैं. कछ लोगों का मानना है कि इस शब्द का अर्थ है...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
... का साधारणतः अर्थ होता है...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
जब हम... के बारे में बात करते है, तो बहुधा हमारे मन में... होता है.
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
इस विचार को मैं दो छोटे उदाहरणों की मदद से स्पष्ट करना चाहूँगा
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
यह ध्यान मे रखना जरूरी है कि...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
हमारा मूल विषय है...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
अंत में... का अर्थ हमे स्पष्ट करना जरूरी है.
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
हमारा मतलब है कि...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
... के लिए बहुत सारे स्पष्टीकरण का उपयोग किया जा सकता है.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
हम इन स्पष्टीकरणों को... पर आधारित बता सकते हैं.
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
इन दोनो उदाहरणों को मिलकर देखें तो यह स्पष्ट होता है कि...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
... के बाद, विद्वानों ने तर्क किया है कि...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

मुख्य प्रश्न यह बन जाता है कि..., ... को किस तरह प्रभावित करता है.
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
... को देखा जाए तो, ... को प्रभावित करनेवाली चीज़ों पर एक गहरी नज़र डालना उचित सिद्ध होता है.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
कई वर्षों पहले, ... और ... ने इस विषय पर विवाद आरंभ किया था कि...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
... के प्रश्न पर अध्ययन करने के लिए, ... का प्रभाव ...पर किस तरह होता है, इसका अनुमान लगाएँगे, और इन अनुमानों का परीक्षण करेंगे.
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
इस तरह, ... की दी गई युक्तियों को ध्यान में रखकर, हम यह अनुमान लगा सकते हैं कि...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
इनमें से कुछ शास्त्रार्थों का... के द्वारा निरूपण किया गया है, लेकिन इनका किसी ने परीक्षण नहीं किया है.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
इन परीक्षणों के नतीजे दिखाते हैं कि कई सारी चीजें... संबंधी है.
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
... ने ... और ... के बीच में एक उल्लेखनीय सहसंबंध पाया.
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own