English | Phrases - Academic | Opening

Opening - Introduction

Nesta redação/ tese/ dissertação será examinado(a)/ investigado(a)/ avaliado(a)...
In this essay/paper/thesis I shall examine/investigate/evaluate/analyze…
General opening for an essay/thesis
Para responder esta questão deve-se observar...
To answer this question, we begin by taking a closer look at…
To introduce a specfic area of a subject on which you shall focus
A questão, se..., tem preocupado os especialistas há algum tempo.
The question, whether…has been preoccupying the experts for some time.
General opening to introduce a subject
Sabe-se que.../ É de conhecimento geral que...
It is a well-known fact that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is well-known
Muito já foi escrito/ dito sobre...
A great deal is being written and said about…
General opening to introduce a subject
É consenso geral que...
It is generally agreed today that…
General opening to introduce a subject that is generally agreed upon, but which you would like to question
Analisa-se agora os fatores...
We then review the factors…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Esta análise visa identificar...
We build on this analysis to identify…
Developing your opening to describe exactly what your thesis involves
Um tópico/ assunto frequente em...é...
A persistent theme in...is…
Introducing the main themes
...é observado(a) repetidamente como um fenômeno empírico.
As an empirical phenomenon, ... has been observed repeatedly.
To emphasize the importance of your study
De encontro à esta informação, a questão central que motiva este trabalho é...
Against this background, the central question that motivates this paper is: ...
Specific statement saying what your study is about, comes after general background information
Esta pesquisa explora as causas de/do/da...
This research explores the causes of…
Specific statement of intention for your research
Os autores dos mais recentes estudos propõem que...
The authors of more recent studies have proposed that…
Used to present the current academic thinking around your chosen subject
Nosso propósito é...(Importante: em Português não é recomendado redigir trabalhos acadêmicos utilizando a primeira pessoa do singular. A primeira pessoa do plural raramente é usada. Geralmente se escreve na terceira pessoa, do singular ou plural)
Our purpose is to…
Used to state the main aims of the study
Examinando de forma empírica..., espera-se chegar a um entendimento mais completo sobre...
By empirically examining..., we hope to produce a more complete understanding of…
Used to describe your method and introduce the central aspect of the study

Opening - Definition

Por definição, ... significa...
By definition… means…
Used to define a certain word
Neste trabalho a palavra...será considerada como...
For the purposes of this essay, the term… will be taken to mean…
Used to define a certain word
É importante deixar claro a definição de...
It is important to be clear about the definition of…
Used to define a certain word
O termo...refere-se à/ao...
The term… refers to…
Used to define a certain word
O modelo padrão sugere que...pode ser definido(a) como...
The standard model suggests that… can be defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
De acordo com...,...é definido(a) como...
According to..., …is defined as…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...pode ser definido(a) de diversas formas. Algumas pessoas argumetam que o termo denota...
…may be defined in many ways. Some people argue that the term denotes…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
...geralmente significa...
…is commonly understood to mean…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Frequentemente se pensa em... quando se fala de...
What we usually have in mind when we talk about… is…
Used to describe a word, for which a definition has been suggested, but leaves the possibility for personal interpretation
Dois exemplos podem esclarecer este conceito.
Two brief examples might clarify this concept.
A statement, after which you can use examples to define an idea
É importante enfatizar que...
It is important to emphasize…
Used when wanting to draw attention to your definition
O foco é em/no/na...
Our focus is on…
A casual way to define a certain word
Por fim, deve-se esclarecer o sgnificado da palavra...
Finally, we should clarify our definition of…
Used towards the end of a paragraph, in order to define a certain word
O que se quer dizer é...
What we mean is that…
Used to further explain a definition or give examples of that definition
Diversas explicações foram dadas.
Several explanations have been offered.
A statement, after which you can further explain your definition
Estas explicações são fundadas em/na/no...
We can characterize these explanations as being rooted in…
Used to clarify the basis for your definition
Estas explicaçõoes complementam uma à outra e exclarecem o fenômeno de/do/da...
These explanations complement each other and help to illuminate the phenomenon of…
Used after having given two similar examples, which together can be used to define a word
Seguindo..., estudiosos argumentam que...
Following..., scholars have argued that …
Used when there is one clear expert in your field, but others have contributed towards his definition

Opening - Hypothesis

A questão central torna-se a seguinte: como... pode afetar...?
The central question then becomes: how might… affect…?
Used to present the main hypothesis
Dado tal evidência para..., a análise dos fatores que impactam...parece justificada.
Given this evidence for..., an examination of the factors that impact upon… seems warranted.
Used to present the main hypothesis
Há mais de uma década ...e... iniciaram um debate com base na seguinte questão: se...
Over a decade ago, … and… started a debate centering on this question: whether…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Esta pesquisa dirige-se a..., desenvolvendo e testando uma série de hipóteses que indicam como...afeta...
This research addresses… by developing and testing a series of hypotheses indicating how… affects...
Used to present the main hypothesis
Assim, seguindo o raciocínio estabelecido por ..., admite-se a hipótese que...
Thus, following the reasoning set forth by..., we hypothesize that…
Used to present the main hypothesis
Alguns destes argumentos foram previamente formalizados por..., mas nenhum deles foi testado.
Some of these arguments have been formalized by..., but none have been tested.
Used to introduce the hypothesis and state that your study is unique
As evidências destes estudos sugerem uma variedade de fatores relativos à/ao...
The evidence from these studies suggests a variety of factors related to…
Used to present the factors relevant to your study and your hypothesis
...encontrou significante correlação entre...e...
...found a significant correlation between… and…
Used to point out someone else's work, which has relevance to your own